how drug companies keep insulin prices high - glass containers with silicone sleeve
The new study explores why diabetics who rely on life-saving insulin injections still do not have a cheaper universal option to treat their disease.
"Surprisingly, the question has not been discussed yet, so we are going to ask the question: why is there no normal insulin?
The senior research author, Dr.
Kevin Riggs is a researcher at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore.
Riggs and his colleague, Dr. Riggs, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in March 19.
Jeremy Green describes how the unique development of insulin allows pharmaceutical companies to continuously improve their drugs while extending patents for decades.
Generic drugs cannot be produced until Brand patents are obtained
The name medicine has expired.
Hot news debate highlights Harris's defense in the face of Biden's watch
Putin pointed out the possible impact when meeting with an expert.
"This is a big problem.
Some patients can't afford insulin at all, and even those with health insurance can't afford it.
Joel Zonszein, director, clinical diabetes center, Montefiore Medical Center, New York City.
He added that if the price of insulin is still out of reach for some people, the health care system will eventually pay more for inpatient treatment and treatment of complications associated with inadequate treatment or untreated diabetes
The researchers noted that the cost of insulin for people without insurance ranged from $120 to $400 per month.
Insulin is a naturally produced hormone that is necessary for the body to use sugar found in food as fuel for the body and brain cells.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks insulin-
Producing cells (
Called beta cell
In the pancreas.
This undermines their ability to make enough insulin to survive.
Patients with type 1 diabetes must be injected with insulin to survive.
In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells are becoming more resistant to insulin, which leads to more and more insulin production in the pancreas.
Ultimately, the pancreas cannot keep up with the growing demand.
Patients with type 2 diabetes usually need insulin injections.
As many as half of patients with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin temporarily or permanently, according to the doctorSamuel Dagogo-
Jack, president of medicine and science, American Diabetes Association (ADA).
Without insulin, blood sugar levels rise to dangerous levels.
This will lead to direct life.
The consequences of the threat usually occur in people with type 1 diabetes.
According to ADA, high blood sugar levels over time can lead to heart and kidney disease, vision problems and amputations.
There are many different types of insulin.
Some are long, for example.
Performances and some short plays
According to ADA, perform. Short-
Usually take effective insulin during meal time. Intermediate-
There are also agents of insulin.
The treatment of type 1 diabetes has developed a lot, but these types of insulin are not generic drugs.
To better understand why, Riggs and Green review the history of insulin.
In 1921, plastic surgeon Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best of the University of Toronto first discovered insulin.
The two later sold the insulin patent to the university for $1.
"Insulin is immediately considered a life-saving drug with great clinical and public health significance," the study authors wrote . ".
The university cannot produce enough insulin for the number of people who need it.
As a result, they have united pharmaceutical companies in the United States and abroad.
Part of the agreement is that pharmaceutical companies mayS.
Patent for any manufacturing process improvement.
Over the years, improvements in insulin have allowed people to take less shots.
According to the study authors, insulin was made from beef and pork at that time, which caused some problems, such as impurities in insulin and immune response after injection.
In the 1970 s, the first insulin of human beings appeared.
Twenty years later, the first synthetic insulin was developed.
The first version is very short. Acting insulin.
At 2000, the first long
Synthetic insulin was approved in the United States. S.
Food and Drug Administration
In the process, with each newer, more incremental insulin appearing, new patents were released, preventing competition for generic drugs, the researchers said. This re-
Riggs and Green wrote that patented technology is called "Evergreen ".
Bill Chin is executive vice president of science and regulatory advocacy at the pharmaceutical industry association PhRMA.
He said, "I think this review simplifies the whole change from insulin from animal sources to our insulin today.
I think insulin is a modern miracle, and we encourage companies to develop new drugs that provide diabetes patients with a way to control their blood sugar, which is great and can lead to a normal life.
Riggs and green acknowledge that the lives of the Indian people have improved over the years.
"But in a world where insulin is still not affordable for many people with diabetes, it's not quite certain whether each incremental innovation is worth the price we pay," they wrote . ".
Point of reality, dago-
Jack pointed out that the cost of transporting and distributing insulin may be the same or higher than the cost of making regular insulin.
"Insulin must be liquid.
It has to be stored in bulky glass containers, kept in cool conditions, and the shelf life of insulin is only three to six months.
Transportation may exceed the cost of producing insulin.
"These entry costs may be preventing competition from traditional generic companies," he explained . "
In addition, the insulin market is relatively smallJack said.
Background Data from the study show that about 6 million people in the United States currently take insulin.
Although the market may not be as large as the more common drugs, Riggs notes that the current synthetic insulin is some of the highest --
Sell medicine in the market.
A long first patent
Synthetic insulin expires in June 2014.
Several companies have announced plans to develop a long-
The first such product was recently approved in Europe.
According to the study, in countries such as China, India, Mexico and Peru, these insulin have unregulated versions.
Dagogo said: "The Green and Riggs articles remind us in a timely manner that everything in the insulin manufacturing and supply sector is not going wellJack.
"Everyone involved in the diabetes field needs to be involved in creating affordable insulin.